Glass Industry Terms - Everything You've Always Wanted to Know About Glass But Were Afraid to Ask

What is frit? Frit is an industry term for the paint that is applied around the perimeter of the automotive glass parts. One of the key ingredients in frit is a glass ceramic particle that fuses to the glass surface making it a very durable and scratch resistant surface.sd#^TDFBsgt(*&)gw456%#Tfbd
Why is frit (paint) on the glass? Frit serves two roles on the glass. First, it is a cosmetic feature that is used to hide interior trim and pinchweld details. Early model vehicles used wide moldings to obscure what would otherwise be exposed areas. As moldings became smaller to the point of nonexistence on several current models, the frit had a greater role in covering unfinished areas of the vehicle. Secondly, the frit inhibits UV degradation of urethane adhesives. While the frit will not completely block the UV rays from passing through the glass, it does significantly reduce UV light transmission. Most urethanes are not UV stable. If urethane is left exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods of time, it will yellow and turn chalky. Presence of the frit will extend the lifetime of the urethane adhesive system.
How many types of frit are there? There are hundreds of types of frits developed for automotive glass applications. The most common automotive glass frits we use are black, gray and white although other colors are available. Frit pastes are developed to work in combination with the processing requirements needed for a specific part. Each paste is developed for the specific furnace time and temperature parameters used to fabricate parts at a manufacturing location. It is not uncommon for a glass manufacturing facility to work with a dozen different frit pastes.
How is frit applied to the glass? Frit is applied to the glass utilizing a silk screen method. It is very similar to the method used to silk screen T-shirts. An image of the frit design is developed for the glass in the bent or curved shape. Then the image is unwrapped and flattened. A silk screen is made to allow the frit to pass through openings in the screen. The openings correspond to the final design image. The frit is a thick paste that is put onto the screen. Squeegees are used to push the frit paste through the screen openings and onto the glass. Frit is applied to the glass while it is in the flat position before it is processed through the furnace. The furnace helps to cure the frit and to fuse it to the glass surface. Every part with each different design has a unique silk screen. Silk screens are constantly being maintained throughout the life of a part. Because of the fragile nature of the screens, they will wear out and commonly need to be remade throughout the lifetime of a part in production.
What is Batch glass? Batch is a glass reference term that identifies a part of the manufacturing process. The raw components of glass are properly proportioned and mixed in batches for delivery to the furnace. Even though glass is made in a continual process that runs 24 hours a day, every day of the year, the raw materials are added as needed in batches. To state that a glass is batch glass, it implies that there is not any post manufacturing materials, i.e. a film or coating, applied to the glass. Batch glass gets all its characteristics from the raw materials that are used to make the glass. In the case of privacy or solar batch glass, the dark colorants and UV inhibitors are mixed in with the original ingredients in the batch to make the glass.
What is Float glass? Float glass refers to the glass manufacturing process. The raw components of glass are melted in a furnace between a temperature range of 240OF to 2850 F. A continual process is established as the molten glass is moved from the furnace to the tin bath where it is supported on molten tin until the glass cools from the slurry state to a temperature where the glass becomes solid. The float process was developed by Pilkington during 1950's and is now considered the primary state of the art process for manufacturing automotive and architectural glass.
What is the tin side and what is the air side of glass? As mentioned earlier, the float glass process involves floating molten glass on.molten tin. The molten tin is smooth enough to give glass its flat surfaces. The tin and glass are like oil and water, they don't mix. However, the side of glass that is in contact with tin during the float process does pick up a microscopic layer of tin. This is considered the tin side of float glass. The top side of glass is called the air or atmosphere side. To detect the tin side of glass, hold an UV light at an angle to the glass surface. The tin side will glow and the air side will not.
What is Soft-Ray and what is Solar-Ray'? Soft-Ray and Solar-Ray are GM Trademarks for the glass used in their vehicles. It identifies the TYPE of glass used for construction and can appear on either laminated or tempered glass. LOF uses E-Z-Eye glass for the production of Soft-Ray parts and EZKool solar control glass for Solar-Ray parts. PPG uses Solex and Solar Green respectively. Deep Tint Solar-Ray is another GM trademark that appears on dark colored solar control parts.
What is a monogram? A monogram is often referred to as the bug or trademark. Every automotive piece of glass is required by law to have an identifying mark on the glass that will be visible once that glass is in the correctly installed position in the vehicle. These marks are usually painted on the glass, but they can also be sand blasted or acid etched into the surface.
What is in a monogram? For automotive applications, there are certain governmental items that must be in the monogram including a department of transportation (DOT) number, the model (M) number and the glass type (AS-1, AS-2, AS-3 etc.) Monograms can also include information such as the brand name of the glass, the company name that made the glass, the company logo, the country of origin and a date code identifying when the glass was manufactured.
Is there anyway to determine what a part is by the monogram on the glass? Unfortunately, the majority of monograms do not have any information in it to help determine what an unmarked part is. However, we are starting to see more parts marked with the NAGS number in the Monogram. As more of this is done, it will be easier to correctly identify unknown parts.
2-What is the difference between AS-1, AS-2 and AS-3 glasses codes? For automotive applications, the three most common types of glass are AS-1, AS-2, and AS-3. All windshields must be marked with the AS-1 code which is on laminated glass having light transmission greater than 70%. All tempered glass that has light transmission above 70% is marked with an AS-2 code. All glass, laminated or tempered, that has less then 70% light transmission will have an AS-3 Code.
What is a DOT code? The DOT number identifies the glass manufacturer. The acronym DOT stands for Department of Transportation. Each glazing manufacture must apply for a DOT number in order to sell glazings for vehicles in the United States of America. Each DOT number is assigned by the government and is unique for every manufacturer. Every piece of glass that is made must contain that DOT code if it is to be sold in the automotive market.
What is an M number? The M number is a model number that is assigned by all glass manufacturing companies. Each company establishes their own M number system that is unique to that organization. The M number identifies the specific glass construction. It can identify the glass details used to manufacture a part such as glass color and thickness. One Model number might apply to 50 different part numbers. Each Model number is tested every year for compliance with the governmental regulations. Most of the time, a part number cannot be determined by the M number.
How can I determine whether the glass in a car is original or a replacement? If you don't know the history of the car, one-way to identify a piece of glass is to check the monogram on the glass. If you, knew the manufacturer of the original glass, check the DOT (Department of Transportation) number on the glass in the car. If the DOT number doesn't belong to the OE glass supplier, then the part was a replacement. If the number does match, then check the date code on the glass. Most manufacturers mark the monogram with a means of identifying the month and year of glass production, sometimes even the date and shift! Since each company does it differently, you'll have to contact the appropriate manufacturer for their date code conventions, which can include combinations of letters, numbers or even dots over various letters. By comparing the date of the glass with the date of the car assembly, you can determine if they are the same vintage. If the glass date closely matches the vehicle assembly date, chances are the glass is original.
Which side of the vehicle is the right hand side? The RIGHT hand side of the vehicle is the PASSENGER'S side of the vehicle. The DRIVER'S side of the vehicle would be the LEFT-hand side. Rule of thumb, right and left sides are determined by picturing yourself sifting in the car.
When should a non-conductive adhesive be used? If the adhesive will contact the antenna or defroster lines when the part is installed, use a non-conductive adhesive. Non-conductive adhesives prevent interference with antenna systems and heated defroster systems that are contained in the glass. Many new glass parts have the antenna, defroster connections or buss bars around the edge of the glass in the same area that the adhesive is applied to install a glass part. Using a conductive adhesive will affect the performance of the electrical system. Several adhesive manufacturers offer a non-conductive product for these glass applications. Be sure to follow the manufacturers specific instructions for the adhesive system you use.
How do installation methods cause stress cracks? Installation related cracks usually result from a short cut out method, where all of the old urethane bed is not removed prior to installation. If the shape and form of the new glass is not identical to the old urethane bed, the glass could have spots of interference on the adhesive that lead to breaking. Installation related stress could also be formed by using adhesives that are too rigid and don't offer the compression and flexibility required of the adhesive system. Usually, installation related stress cracks would develop over time after the adhesive has been allowed to fully cure.
What is tempered glass? Tempered glass is a single piece of glass that is strengthened through a rapid cooling process. This cooling process tempers the glass by blasting both the top and bottom surfaces with air. The outside surfaces of the glass cool faster than the core of the glass. This action sets up a balance of strains between the surfaces and the core which adds considerable strength to the glass. Tempered glass is difficult to break, but if broken it breaks into small granular pieces.
How are tempered parts made? Glass of the specified thickness is cut to the desired size. Any artwork or paint design is applied to the glass while it is in the flat position. This includes any heated grid lines or antenna lines required on the final part. The glass is loaded into a furnace and is heated to temperatures of 12,000 F. There are multiple processes that could be used to bend the glass as it exits the furnace including roll.
How much force is required to break a tempered backlite? While the strength of tempered glass can seem very high, it is important to recognize that the manner in which tempered glass is broken will affect the strength. Tempered glass is extremely difficult to break with dull, blunt objects. Tempered glass can have a rupture strength of up to 24,000 pounds per square inch. Recall that tempered glass is produced by rapid cooling of the outside glass surfaces which sets up a stress / strain balance.
Why do the heated grid lines on heated backlites sometimes have a redbrown color and other times have a yellow color? The color of the grid lines is predominately determined by the surface of glass that they are printed on. The lines will have a dark appearance when printed on the tin side of glass. The lines will have a brighter yellow or amber color when printed on the air side of glass. Other colors, such as white or light gray, may indicate a potential manufacturing problem with the heated grid lines such as an under fired condition or too much silver. These can result in a heated backlite that does not function correctly.
Is it a defect to see discolored spot patterns on tempered glass? No, the discolored spot patterns on a piece of glass are actually a phenomenon of the tempering process. During tempering, air is forced onto the glass through hundreds of nozzles. The spots are areas where the cool air contacts the glass. The temper spot pattern can indicate how well a piece of glass is tempered. The size and consistency of the discolored areas will vary with the exact process used, but they are present on all tempered parts. The ability to see these patterns is dependent on the angle ' of installation and the lighting conditions. For example, it is easier to see the patterns on a sloping piece of glass at dusk than it is to see them on a vertical piece in bright sunlight.
What is an Innershield? The innershield is a layer of plastic on the innermost piece of glass which was most commonly used on the windshield. The innershield prevented lacerations on an occupant's head and face if they came in contact with the windshield in the event of an accident. The innershield was a popular option on deluxe vehicles about ten years ago.
How is a shadeband put into a windshield? The shadeband is pre-tinted onto the plastic that is placed between the glass plies. The plastic comes in rolls and one end of the roll has the shade color. During processing, it may be required to warp the plastic to curve the shadeband so it will match the curve of the top of, the windshield. After warping, the plastic is cut to size and it is ready to use.
What is delamination? Delamination is the separation of the glass plies and plastic layer in a laminated product such as a windshield. This is also known as an unbonded area (UBA) or an oil blow. Old autoclaving process used hot petroleum to laminate windshields and the oil could seep into the edges causing the windshield to delaminate.
What is bullet proof glass and how is it different from bullet resistant glass? Bullet proof glass is glass that will stop a bullet. Any bullet. To make a glass bullet proof, every type of bullet from every type of gun must be taken into consideration during the design of the glass. Bullet proof glass is actually a composite of glass and plastic layers laminated together to achieve a strong composite that will stop a bullet. Bullet proof glass will be three or more inches thick. Bullet resistant glass is designed for applications with a resistance to a range of specific bullet calibers. Bullet resistance glass can be obtained in a 3/4 inch thick composite of glass and plastics laminated together. On vehicle applications, the environmental end use is considered for the glass design. If a vehicle is outfitted with bullet proof or bullet resistant glazing, all the interior trim must also be reworked to accommodate the thicker glass.
What are stress cracks? Stress cracks are breaks from the edges of laminated glass, such as a windshield, that happen without an impact point or noticeable damaged area. While this phenomenon can occur with seemingly no apparent cause, there are however, two major factors that have a role in creating stress cracks. The stress crack can be caused by a manufacturing defect within the glass or it can be attributed to the installation methods.
How do glass defects cause stress cracks? Stress cracks can occur if the two plies of glass used to make the laminated part are not completely homogenous with each other. Stress cracks can be a condition of tension or compression that exist within the glass. Stress can also be caused by incomplete annealing or temperature difference between the plies. Manufacturing processes include multiple quality checkpoints for every individual part during production to identify and eliminate defective parts. Even so, it can be difficult to predict a stress crack due to manufacturing conditions.
I have often heard of a windshield surface referred to as the number 1, 2, 3 or 4 surface. What do these numbers mean? The windshield surface number refers to the glass surface of the individual glass plies in the laminated composite. A basic windshield construction is composed of two pieces of glass with a plastic layer in between. The surfaces are counted from OUTSIDE the vehicle. Therefore, surface number 1 is the outside surface of the exterior glass piece that would be exposed once installed in the vehicle. Surface number 4 is the innermost surface which would be on the interior of the vehicle once installed. Surface number 4 is the surface that is prepped with primers, cleaners and or activators required for installation. Surface # 2 and 3 are interior surfaces that are in contact with the plastic.
What is laminated glass? Laminated glass is constructed of two pieces of glass with a piece of plastic in between the glass plies. One type of plastic innerlayer used is PVB or polyvinyl butyral. Laminated glass is required to make windshields in the US.
How are windshields made? Two separate pieces of glass are cut to size. While the glass is flat it is printed with the artwork design (frit) that's required. The glass is put through a furnace to soften the glass and fire the frit to the glass surface. Once the glass reaches the right temperature, it is molded into shape and then cooled. After shaping, the glass/ plastic/ glass sandwich is put in a clean room and then put into an autoclave. An autoclave is like a giant pressure cooker. The high pressure squeezes the glass and plastic together. The higher temperature softens the plastic, which bonds the glass and plastic layers together. Once the glass exits the autoclave, any excess plastic is trimmed and the mirror mount is applied to the glass. The glass is inspected and cleaned several times throughout the entire process to make sure it has been manufactured to the highest quality standards. After a final inspection, the finished part is now ready to ship.
What is the Breakaway Bracket? Several new GM and Ford windshields have a Breakaway Bracket. This refers To the mirror button on the windshield. This style mirror button allows the rearviewmirror to snap off when the passenger air bag is deployed. If the rear view mirror did not snap off, there is a possibility that the mirror could puncture the air bag rendering it ineffective. The accessory tool used to remove these snap off rearview mirrors is the MB-4. TIP: Put Breakaway rearview mirrors back on the glass before installing the windshield. This will prevent moving a newly installed windshield out of place with the force required to snap the mirror on the glass.
How is a windshield glass molded into shape? There are two common practices for shaping a windshield, gravity bending and press bending. Gravity bending has been used longer than press bending. For gravity bending, two pieces flat glass ride through the furnace on a mold contoured like the finished part. As the glass softens, the force of gravity pulls the glass into shape. This pair of gravity bent glass is then kept together throughout the rest of the windshield process. In a press bending operation, the single lites of glass go through a furnace on a flat surface of high temperature resistant rollers. As the glass exits the furnace it is quickly pressed into shape between a male and female mold contoured like the finished product. The glass is then cooled and moved to the next process.
How can I determine if a diversity or non-diversity antenna backlite is needed? The diversity antenna will use a combination of antennas in order to perform efficiently. Most diversity-antennas are offered with vehicle upgrade packages. A standard car model may only have the mast antenna, whereas the deluxe luxury package may incorporate a diversity antenna in the backlite with the mast antenna. How to determine the need for a diversity antenna will differ depending on the vehicle. The current Toyota Camry has extra speakers (6 total) on the vehicle that uses a diversity antenna and only 4 speakers on the vehicle that uses the non-diversity antenna.
Can an antenna or heated backlite clip be reattached to the glass if it has fallen off? Clips, or tabs, can be reattached to the glass. In order to determine if the connection is repairable, the surface of the glass must be evaluated. If there are any chunks of glass (called spalls) missing from the surface, the repair should not be made and the glass should be replaced. Spalls will weaken the glass and could eventually result in glass breakage. Next, select the adhesive to be used to reattach the clips. There are a few companies that manufacture a conductive adhesive system that can be used to reattach the tabs. The adhesive must be conductive so it will allow the electrical current pass between the lines on the glass and the vehicle. Follow the manufacture's directions for the repair. Regular super glue adhesives will not work because they are non-conductive. HINT: Be sure to clean both the glass surface and the clip surface of old debris. Also, let the repaired part sit for the recommended cure time so the adhesive bond is fully developed.
Will a broken heated grid line on a backlite affect the operation of the antenna? Many new radio and cellular phone antenna designs are incorporated into the heated grid design in the backlite. If a heated grid line is broken it will affect the performance of the antenna. The line break will become more noticeable with the general public as diversity antennas gain popularity and reduce the need for traditional mast antennas. There are aftermarket grid line repair systems available which can restore both the heating and the antenna characteristics of the grid line.
What is a Rain Sensor windshield? Several vehicle manufacturers, including Cadillac, Mercedes Benz and BMW, are now offering Rain Sensor windshields. The rain sensor is actually a small electronic device mounted to the inside surface of the windshield. The device has a lens that will detect the presence of moisture on the outside surface of glass. When moisture is present, a signal is sent to the wiper control that automatically activates the windshield wipers. This a great safety option for those misty periods when a driver is passing trucks and road spray hits the windshield. The windshield wipers will activate without the need for the driver to remove his hands from the wheel or his eyes from the road.
Does the rain sensor module come on the replacement windshield? No. At this time, none of
tempering furnacethe rain sensor designs require the sensor to be applied by the manufacturer on the replacement windshields. The electronic sensor that is on the existing windshield in the car must be removed and re-mounted onto the replacement windshield.
How is the rain sensor attached to the replacement windshield? There are special re-attachment kits for the replacement industry, available through your local Car dealer, which can be used to re-attach the electronic rain sensor to the new windshield. The Cadillac kit consists of tape, cleaners and primers for replacing the Cadillac module. The Mercedes / BMW kit contains the tape and a new lens. Instructions for application are included in all the kits.
Is it normal for HUD display to appear faded in bright light conditions? Bright sunlight or high glare conditions can result in a dimmer display of the Head's Up display. It is normal for a HUD to appear brighter at night in darker conditions that during the day under full sun. It is not normal for the HUD to completely disappear. If the display is fading when the car changes momentum, such as when turning a corner or accelerating, then the problem could be a system defect and it's recommended that a dealer check out the electronics. There is nothing in the windshield to cause the display to fade or appear less intense.
What is a diversity antenna? A diversity antenna combines the reception from several individual antennas on the vehicle that makes it a very efficient antenna system. The definition of diverse means different, therefore a diversity antenna in a backlite is one that could Work with the mast (pillar) antenna mounted to the car. The two different antennas work together to achieve superior AM/FM radio reception. The 1998 Cadillac Seville has a diversity antenna system that consists of an antenna in the windshield and antenna in the backlite that work together.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Glass Tempering

Glass tempering is a high-end quality glass and is used in a variety of demanding applications these days. When a tempered glass is broken, it crumbles in small-sized granular chunks; this is because a balanced internal stress is created. The tempering of glass has been put into practice keeping in mind the environmental safety as an issue. An annealed glass is converted into a toughened glass through series of chemical and thermal treatments; thereby, it becomes less hazardous when broken into granular chunks; it is even less likely to cause any sort of injury. sd#^TDFBsgt(*&)gw456%#Tfbd
One must keep in mind a few key quality areas, while choosing the best glass that is tempered:
Optical distortion - the lesser the distortion, the better would be the quality
Roller marking - it is produced if the glass is poorly handled in the furnace chamber
Waviness and Bending - it isn't a defect feasibly being a characteristic of heat-treated glass
Edge strength - the stronger the edges, the less-likely would be the thermal breakage
Fragmentation - it should be conducted for consumer safety and strength
Coating burns - a small area of the coating must be removed before cutting and scoring the coated glass
What are the different uses of glass tempering?
Tampered, also called toughened glass is known for its strength, thermal resistance and safety; therefore, this glass is most commonly used in making the side and rear windows in cars. It is also used in making windscreen, and building frameless doors, structurally loaded application and any other applications that may become fatal in an incident of human impact.
Rim of the glass or plates may also be tampered for their use in the food and hospitality industry. Manufacturers that make use glass tempering techniques include ePyrex, Corelle and Arc International. Toughened glass is also used in the microwaves and glass stoves.
What are the advantages of glass tempering?
The major benefits of glass tempering include:
Strength - it is four to five times stronger than an annealed glass
Safety - it disintegrates into relatively smaller pieces when broken by pressure reducing serious injuries and accidents
Edge strength - it is highly strong from the edges as tempering furnace compared to normal ordinary glasses
Thermal breakage - it is highly resistant to withstand any kind of thermal breakage
What are the disadvantages of a glass that is tempered?
Some of the disadvantages of glass tempering include:
Re-sizing, re-cutting and re-working on a toughened glass is not possible
The glass will break completely if its edges are damaged
The waviness on its surface creates problems in making thin film solar cells
Article Source: http://www.xinglass.com/en/cpzs.asp

glass machinery

What is a non-diversity antenna? A non-diversity antenna system relies on only one antenna for radio wave reception. Several examples of non-diversity antenna include 1) a mast antenna mounted to the vehicle 2) an antenna printed on the backlite or 3) a set of wires mounted into the windshield. A non-diversity antenna will not be a combination.sd#^TDFBsgt(*&)gw456%#Tfbd
Can a break in a HUD (Heads-Up-Display) windshield be repaired or must it be replaced? A break in the HUD windshield can be repaired like a normal non-HUD windshield. If the repair area is in the HUD image area, a repair may interfere with the image causing a double or distorted image. Therefore, consideration is required to determine if the type and size of break is repairable without HUD interference.
Passivated glass refers to chemically coated glass. Many automotive glass parts are coated to achieve either the solar control characteristics or the privacy features. The coating can usually be detected by the reflective, mirror-like appearance. Sometimes these coatings will also have a color associated with them and can make the glass look blue, pink or amber. The solar coatings are used to filter out the sun's ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths while the privacy coatings filter out visible light wavelengths. The wavelengths that are filtered out by coated glass, include the wavelength spectrums that CB radios, cellular phones, automated toll readers and radar detectors operate on. Therefore, the chemically coated glass can interfere with the operation of electronic devices that require a glass-mounted antenna.
What type of glass is recommended for a glass-mounted antenna? Glass that is referred to, as BATCH glass is compatible with glass mounted antennas. Solar and privacy batch glass is not coated like the passivated glass. Instead, the raw materials that give the glass its solar or privacy characteristics are added at the time the glass is made. The raw materials are melted right in with the sand and other components that glass are constructed from. Once the glass has been made, it would not need any other treatments prior to fabrication into automotive glass parts. Batch glass is uniform throughout the thickness of the glass. Coated parts are surface treated; the surface has different properties than the core of the glass.
Are there any special hints for re-attaching the rain sensor? Make sure the glass is very clean prior to attaching the sensor. The performance of the sensors depends on the optically clear grades of doublefaced tape used for reattaching the units. These tapes also need to be clean and free of bubbles when applied to the glass. Any impurities that may be present will give a false signal to the rain sensor causing it to activate unnecessarily.
What does the term "Auto-Cancel" refer to in the NAGS catalog? The Auto Cancel notation means the electrical input to the heated backlite design is automatically canceled after a specified time and/or temperature. Most heated backlites made today are for automatic cancellation systems. However, there are a few parts such as the Isuzu Trooper backlites where a different glass heated design is required for the automatic vs. the manual systems. For example, FB4815 is for an automatic cancellation heated grid system whereas FB4816 is for a manual cancellation heated grid system. 8-What is the difference between a heavy-duty heated backglass and a standard heated backglass? The heavy-duty back glass is rated for higher amperage. The Heavy-Duty (HD) designation is predominately used on foreign cars such as Honda and Toyota vehicles. Normal domestic vehicles were rated for 22 amps whereas heated backlites in Asian vehicles were generally rated for 11 amps. Amperage relates to speed of performance. The higher the amperage, the faster the backglass will heat and clear the frost from the glass. To accommodate the US market, many foreign car manufacturers developed the HD back glasses to offer compatible defrosting performance in the US. The heavy-duty backglass are an upgrade, but it does not interchange with the standard design.
In developing our articles, I wished to help independent construction industry sub-contractors with challenges in there business. I hope you find these articles useful. The construction trades in the following business models will find the most benefit. The glass, electrical, Hvac, plumbing, landscaping and general construction. These are the
glass machinery
industries that I have the most expertise in and are related service trades. The sites in development will have many features to assist you. Buying and selling of old inventory, supplies or tools. Industry videos on new products and interviews. Articles and much more. For more information go to our first site in development [http://myglasstrades.com]. Or contact me at mike@myglasstrades.com. Thank you.
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Pantry Doors With Glass: What Type of Frosted Glass Is Best for Providing Obscurity Into the Pantry?

The kitchen truly is the heart of the home! More time is spent in the kitchen and dining area of a home than any other area. It's the place of family gathering where we not only share a meal, but we spend and share our lives! Kitchen remodels are among the most popular type of remodel. With the advancement of high-tech appliances, stunning counter surfaces, innovative faucets, lighting and custom cabinetry, today's modern kitchen has gone to a whole new level of custom! sd#^TDFBsgt(*&)gw456%#Tfbd
A very vital part of the kitchen is the pantry. Today's newly designed kitchen's will usually feature a nice walk in pantry, or at least a full length pantry for easy access and a good amount of storage space. Everyone knows, the pantry is essential! When we walk into a kitchen for instance when shopping for a home, for instance, or getting ideas for a remodel, when we see a nice large kitchen pantry, we want it! Having enough space to keep things easy to reach and neatly organized is a huge part of having an efficient kitchen that we love to cook in!
But we don't just want efficient. We want pretty! And the pantry door is what our guests see! And we not only want pretty, we want UNIQUE! We want the pantry to compliment and coordinate perfectly with our individual decor. There's no better way to add a custom feel to a pantry door, than having it feature custom frosted glass. The glass creates an "open feel", and a contrasting surface to compliment the others we see: the granite or other counter surface, the wood, the stainless steel perhaps, are all complimented by glass. So we know glass is the best choice to achieve an open and varied surface, BUT... we don't want to be able to see IN to the pantry! Even a with a neatly kept pantry we don't want to see the cans or the boxes and all the other goodies inside!
Solution? Etched glass, or also what's referred to as frosted glass.
They both mean the same thing, but did you know there are several TYPES of etching, that actually create various textures and effects?
There's sandblast glass etching, acid etching, cream etching, ceramic frit, and of course there's also vinyl decals. All of these methods will provide a flat, white frosted surface. The biggest difference comes in with the SANDBLAST method, and that's because sandblasting the glass allows the artist to actually penetrate deeper into the glass, as the sand is sprayed through a hose with varied air pressure. Unlike the other methods and materials that only allow for a "surface etching, the sand acts as a carving tool, with the ability to create depth and shading, which are areas in the glass that fade back out to clear glass, creating a 2 dimensional effect in the design. The sandblast nozzle is actually used as both an artist's brush, and a sculptors carving tool, as you would think of clay being carved with a metal tool. The sand actually melts the glass. When you run your fingers across the sandblasted surface, as compared to an acid etch or a cream etching, you'll be able not only ridges and line edges, or lumps and bumps, if the glass was 3D Carved, but, you'll also notice a subtle difference in the actual surface fo the glass. It will be slightly more porous, and a brighter white than acid etching, as a comparison.
Acid etching actually creates more of a "sheen" in the etched finish. No "shading" can be done, and the finish is not quite as bright white.
Cream etching is a technique used more often for the hobbyist for smaller items like wine glasses or other cookware. Creating a slightly more white finish than acid etch, it too etches the surface only.
A ceramic frit is an enamel applied to glass with a large roller for full coverage applications or through a screen for silkscreening applications. The design is made by placing a screen over a piece of glass and then pressing ceramic frit, by means of a large squeegee, through the pores of the screen. After the frit is applied, the glass goes through an infra-red oven to dry the frit and then through a tempering furnace to fire (bond) the frit to the glass permanently. This method also creates a solid white finish.
As far as maintenance, each method is actually quite durable. All can be cleaned with a soft cloth, using a typical glass cleaner. With acid or cream etching, you need to be a little more cautious not to rub too hard while cleaning, but that rarely becomes necessary.
The sandblasted surface is probably the most durable against scratches. Being slightly porous, it CAN take in oils a bit deeper, but the oil is removable with acetone. Using a soft white cloth, apply acetone to the cloth and rub. The surface is actually very tough.. obviously permanent, and so long as you're using a soft cloth you're safe to rub and remove any oils. To finish, follow up by spraying the entire area with glass cleaner and wipe clean. The only time that using acetone really becomes necessary is if you get a little one with butter fingers or some other oil on someone's hands, touching or rubbing the glass. Otherwise, the sandblasted glass doesn't show dust and rarely needs cleaning.
Now for GLASS THICKNESS: Most interior glass doors will come with pre-installed tempered glass that is 1/8" thick. If glass inserts are ordered separately, you may find 1/8" or 1/4" being sold. Both being tempered, they are essentially equally strong. Tempered glass is very hard to break. The only real vulnerable places are the edges, which of course is either already in the door frame. If glass is ordered separate, just take caution with the edges, not bumping the against a counter or other hard object. where Scratches on door glass are not usually any issue. Unlike a glass table or counter where objects are being slid across the surface, the door glass is usually only touched with hands and fingers.
Now on to the FUN PART! The frosted glass design! The best choice for achieving the privacy you want, with a design at the LOWEST PRICE, is what's called A SOLID NEGATIVE FROST or ETCH. With a negative etching, the design elements are CLEAR GLASS and the BACKGROUND is FROSTED for obscurity. Line widths (say for a border or a design) shouldn't be more than 1/8" thick, although a 1/4" is still suitable and will allow for no real visibility, unless the light is ON, and a person stands right at the glass, peering in!
With sandblasted glass, there's also the option of a 2D and 3D Carved effect. These effects give the glass a truly hand-crafted, higher quality look. Also known as "stage sandblast" the design will take on completely different look in one of these techniques.
When it comes to shopping for a frosted glass pantry door, these effects cover the majority of what's available. Adding one to your kitchen will truly create something fun and unique that you'll take pride in as you showcase it AND enjoy for yourself every time you go into your pantry!
Sans Soucie Art Glass Studios, Inc. of Palm Desert, California has been specializing in creating custom designed Etched, Frosted, 3D Carved and Stained ARCHITECTURAL ART GLASS for luxury homes and commercial projects since 1976. Sans Soucie designs are hand drawn creations and are available in unlimited design styles. Boasting a very diverse range of products, Sans Soucie crates custom door glass, all glass frameless doors and entries, tub, entry and interior windows, shower enclosures, free standing dividers, booth and area dividers, custom glass signs, art glass murals, tables, floating bar tops, vanity tops, curtain walls, ceiling glass, sculptures, mirrors and more. With their new line of solid frost designs, Sans Soucie not only has not only a wide range of products, but a wide range in price! Sans Soucie's comprehensive web site features over 3000 products, and a brand new, fun and easy to use interactive door designer, where both glass design and door frame are customized live on screen by the shopper! The image transforms live as design and wood selections are made. Besides the online Galleries, you can also see sample pricing and a virtual tour of their Studio and Showroom
glass machinery
in Palm Desert, California.
With an impeccable reputation since 1976, Sans Soucie offers not only the largest selection of etched glass designs available in the industry, but the highest quality as well.
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Types of Industrial Burner

What is an industrial burner? How do they work? Why you need this for your industrial applications? Plenty of questions come to everyone's mind when they think to install this advanced technology at their workplace. An industrial burner is a heating device, which is widely used for high-temperature heating. Due to their advanced technology, these are widely in demand. If you want to learn more about this technology, so, here is a list of different types of industrial burners. This will help you to take your decision wisely, so, you can choose the right product for your industry.sd#^TDFBsgt(*&)gw456%#Tfbd
Biogas Burner: This type of burner is specially designed for gas and not burn properly in a normal natural gas burner. These are well-known for their durability, reliability, and long life. It provides assistance in various industrial applications.
Oil Burner: One of the major types of the industrial burner is an oil burner, which is a heating device that helps in burns heating oil and many other similar fuels. These are available in different technical specifications in order to meet the different demand of industries.
High-Velocity Burner: It is specially designed in a way; so, that it provides excessive air that controlled the heat transferred to the load. These are widely used in aluminum melting, kilns, heat treatment and many other industrial applications.
Gas Burner: It is a device that is specially designed to generate a flame to heat up products for using in further applications. Due to high-technology, this is highly demanded in the food industry and domestic as well as industrial sectors.
Low calorific Value gas burners: Another important type of industrial burner is low calorific value gas burners, which is specially designed to heat up device even in low flame. These are widely used in coal, blast furnace and cortex and many other industries.
Dual Fuel Burner: This type of industrial burner is mainly found in application areas like Galvanizing Furnace, Melting Furnace, and Tempering Furnace. It allows control of air mixing through a mechanical process.
What's more, are you waiting for? You should invest in glass machinery such an advanced technology, which is a must for your industrial applications. This will not only help to finish your work smoothly, but also improve your production level. These are widely used for welding or brazing of cracks, or joints of machinery. These are known for its low power consumption, high processing facility, and low spare inventory, long working life, hassle-free performance and many other attributes.
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A Selection Guide For Buying An Industrial Oven

The industrial oven is used for various tempering furnace industrial applications like drying, sterilization, curing, heating, or baking components, parts or final products. It can be used in batches or continuously with a conveyor line, a variety of temperature ranges, sizes, and configurations for large or small volume applications. Such ovens are used in several applications, including food production, chemical processing, and even in the electronics industry, where circuit boards are run through an oven to attach surface mount components. While buying an oven there are some considerations to keep in mind which are as follows:-sd#^TDFBsgt(*&)gw456%#Tfbd
Application Process: The need of every industry is different and the process demands different types of the industrial oven for the various application processes. The process includes aging, annealing, baking, bonding, curing, drying, homogenizing, normalizing, pre-heating, tempering, sterilization and stress reliving, etc. Choose wisely as per your industrial requirement.
Volume of the business: Not every business is large scale or small scale. Every business has different needs and different outputs, based on the volume of the business choose the equipment wisely.
Determine The Type Of The Process:
Batch Oven: It seems a good approach for the application areas where load size or production volume varies substantially. They are also ideal for situations which require a high degree of flexibility in terms of process variables such as temperature or dwell (soak) time.
Continuous Oven: This approach is the optimal option where plenty of similar product pieces are processed. Continuous ovens help to ensure the consistent thermal processing times for each part in high-volume applications.
Temperature Requirements: Whatever is your temperature requirement always note the maximum and minimum temperature. Also, note following things:
Whether the heat-up rate needs to be regulated or if the output can be allowed to heat up as soon as possible.
The type and amount of product load in the production. The oven design must have sufficient heating capacity to bring the output to the desired heat within the particular time.
The required dwell (soak) time at temperature and the overall cycle time.
Any particular cool-down conditions.
Air Flow For Your Product Load: The ovens offer a range of airflow for your product which offers dual/uniflow, vertical and horizontal airflow. As per the requirement of your product, select a well-fitted choice of the airflow. How the product is loaded is the main factor to consider the type of the airflow.
Consider all these points to buy the best product for your industrial need.
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Heat Treated Plates - The Three Ws

Heated treated plates are a steel product that is specially treated to high temperatures to make it wear resistant and more durable. Such plates are most often manufactured from medium alloys or hard alloys.sd#^TDFBsgt(*&)gw456%#Tfbd
The three major steps involved in the heat treatment procedure typically include the following:
The steel is heated to a high critical temperature, which causes its carbon atoms to migrate to the center.
The steel is then allowed to slowly cool, or water quench, during which the carbon is forced back out. The slowness of this phase results in durable steel rather than the brittle steel that is produced when it is cooled too quickly by immersing it in water or oil.
The steel is then reheated. During this phase of the process, which is referred to as tempering, the desired end hardness is achieved.
During this procedural, steel plates of up to 40 feet long and 8 feet wide can be tempered and quenched as outlined above in special furnaces. The furnace-quenching facilities that take on this process can handle everything from angles and channels to wide flange beams.
A select few suppliers use armor plating as their core product. Such in-house heat treat lines are specifically designed to supply light gauge armor plates to Mil DTL 46100 Rev E, Mil DTL 12560 Rev J, and Mil DTL 46177 Rev C tempering furnace table ready for processing.
Why are plates heat treated?
Customers who require the flattest possible plates in the industry without resorting to mechanized flattening should select a service provider that wields rigid process controls over their process. Why is choosing a steel partner who takes such proactive measures so important? Because when heat treated plates are mechanically flattened, the process can result in uneven internal and residual stresses. As a result, when the plate is cut, it tends to warp. In turn, potential costly damage to the processing equipment can occur.
For what and where are heat treated plates used?
Heat treated plates are found in a wide range of industrial applications. When it is made of high tensile fine grain structural steel, heat treated plating is used for welded steel structures. That means the product will be found in manufacturing industries where vehicles and mobile crates are the end product. This type of steel is also used to make mining equipment, pressure tanks and pressure pipes as well as ballistic steel for armoring.
In addition, because they have greater toughness and wear resistance then lower carbon grades, heat treated plates are used to make jigs, strippers, molds, couplings, sprockets, ejectors, fixtures, gears, valves, tie rods, brakes dies and bolsters, just to name a few of their end products. Machinery parts and components of all sorts also employ the technology.
A company in Paris, France also recently announced that it would be producing advanced heat treated plates for the aerospace and general engineering markets, both of which make wide use of the technology.
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